Let’s start at the very beginning.
This song is in the natural minor.
Harmonic minor sounds vaguely Middle Eastern: composers use it to create an “exotic” or mysterious atmosphere.
Some pieces for microtonally-tuned piano:
Turkish guitar music that uses microtones:
The music of the Second Viennese School in the early twentieth century used 12-tone scales.
Later in the 20th century, music attempted to break free of all tonal structures.