Sylvie

negrofolk

The Lomaxes say:

[Leadbelly’s] uncle Bob Ledbetter had a wife named Silvy. In the middle of the morning, when Uncle Bob was plowing down at the lower end of the filed and the sun was hot, he would holler at Sylvy to bring him some water. After so long a time this holler developed into a little song that he would sing to his mules, when he thought about Silvy down the hill running to him with the water-bucket in her hand.

How does Harry Belafonte change the song?

The Weavers, Pete Seeger’s group, in a cocktail-ish arrangement from the 1950s:

Lonnie Donegan, a Scottish skiffle singer (skiffle was a pop form influenced by blues and other forms of African-American folk music, which was popular in the UK in the 1950s. Is this blackvoice?

The version I grew up with:

This arrangement is reminiscent of patting juba. Do you think it works?

 

Juba

northupfiddle

(A sketch of Solomon Northup.)

You may recall that Solomon Northup, whose memoir Twelve Years A Slave was the basis for the 2013 movie of the same name, was a musician. He wrote of his life as a free black violinist in New York State:

In the winter season I had numerous calls to play on the violin. Wherever the young people assembled to dance, I was invariably there. Throughout the surrounding villages my fiddle was notorious.

In his memoir, Northup also describes playing violin for a Christmas party in Louisiana, an occasion at which the slaves were permitted to take off their masters and perform their own versions of European high-society dances. Afterwards, the slaves

set up a music peculiar to themselves. This is called “patting” . . . the patting is performed by striking the hands on the knees and then striking the hands together, then striking the right shoulder with one hand, and the left side with the other — all the while keeping time with the feet and singing.

This patting is also known as patting juba, or just juba. It derives from sub-Saharan African music; the word “juba” means “to pat or keep rhythm” in the Bantu language. The patting of one’s own body as an instrument was an adaptation made by the slaves when drums were banned in the American colonies. And why were drums banned? You all remember this, from the 1964 film Zulu: chanting as preparation for war.

In 1739, twenty Congolese and Angolan slaves gathered on the banks of the Stono River near Charleston. They commandeered a guns-and-ammo shop, killed the owners, armed themselves, and headed south, chanting and playing drums — “a call to arms, a preparation for battle.” As they marched, more slaves joined in, until the rebels numbered over a hundred. By the end of the day, dozens of whites were dead, and the leaders of the Stono Rebellion would soon be executed.

stono_rebellion

After the rebellion was put down, the colonies enacted punitive measures against blacks, including the death penalty for any slave who learned to read. Slaves were no longer allowed to congregate, earn money, or grow their own food — and drums were banned. Juba was in some ways a response to the drum ban: the body became a rhythmic instrument.

Juba is usually performed just with the voice and the body. The drummer Sule Greg Wilson says:

Juba was sung and percussed to throw off and discharge the negativity of the institution of chattel slavery. Thus, we find in Juba a vital, sacred act—not to be confused with the good-time community activity of Hambone. Though both use body percussion, they are–functionally–very different.

As Sweet Honey in the Rock say, “You don’t just sing juba, you have to do juba. . . the word is African, but doing juba was made up by our people when we had to express how hard and unfair it was to be slaves . . . maybe some evil person can destroy your drums, but can anyone stop a true drummer from drumming? . . use your body . . . become a drum.”

More juba:

A children’s call-and-response version which does not shy away from the injustice of slavery.

When juba is done as a social or community activity, it’s often called hambone. Here, Danny “Slapjazz” Barber demonstrates and discusses its origins in the Stono Rebellion:

Ella Jenkins shows Mister Rogers how to do it:

You can see how juba/hambone mutates over time into another form:

Which becomes this:

And this:

And this: